Integration Models

When integrating technology into the classroom, there are a few valuable models that help illustrate ideas for planning that include higher level thinking and deeper integration.

The RAT Model: “This model leads you to understand if digital technology is functioning as replacement, amplification, or transformation in educational practice” (Hughes & Scharber, 2006, para. 1)

R.A.T. Graphic

The SAMR Model: “This model supports and enables teachers to design, develop, and infuse digital learning experiences that utilize technology. The goal is to transform learning experiences so they result in higher levels of achievement for students” (Shrock, n.d.).


The TPACK Model: “At the heart of the TPACK framework, is the complex interplay of three primary forms of knowledge: Content (CK), Pedagogy (PK), and Technology (TK)” Koehler, n.d., para. 2).






Hughes J, Thomas R & Scharber C (2006). Assessing Technology Integration: The RAT – Replacement, Amplification, and Transformation – Framework. Retrieved from

Koehler, M. (n.d.). TPACK Explained. Retrieved from

Schrock, K. (n.d.). SAMR and Bloom’s. Retrieved from